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Italialainen Leonardo da Vinci (15. huhtikuuta 1452 – 2. toukokuuta 1519) on yksi maailman kuuluisimmista taidemaalareista, joka on maalannut maailman kuuluisimman taulun, Mona Lisan.  Tämän lisäksi hän oli myös kuvanveistäjä, arkkitehti, keksijä, sotilasteknologian kehittäjä, muusikko, kirjailija, matemaatikko ja monipuolinen tieteilijä. Häntä on nimitetty tämän vuoksi usein kaikkien aikojen ”renessanssi-ihmiseksi”, joka on eräänlainen arkkityyppi uteliaalle ja tiedonjanoiselle henkilölle, joka hallitsee monipuoliseksi erilaisia taiteen ja tieteen muotoja. Leonardo da Vincillä oli erittäin utelias mieli, hän oli hyvin älykäs ja opiskeli tieteen ja luonnon lakeja, mikä vaikutti merkittävästi hänen työhönsä. Hänen ideansa ja työnsä ovat vaikuttanet lukuisten muiden taiteilijoiden työhön ja tehneet da Vincistä italialaisen renessanssin kirkkaimman suunnannäyttäjän.

Leonardo da Vincin maalaukset ja taide

Vaikka Leonardo tunnetaan etenkin taidemaalarina, on hänen maalauksistaan säilynyt kenties jopa vain viisitoista kappaletta. Hän ei ollut kovin tuottelias maalari, vaan harrasti taiteita lukuisilla erilaisilla menetelmillä ja työkaluilla. Leonardo saattoi kokeilla uusia tekniikoita tuhoavasti entisten töidensä päälle, eikä hän saanut töitään usein valmiiksi asti. Leonardon, ja samalla koko maailman, kuuluisimpia maalauksia ovat Mona Lisa ja Pyhä ehtoollinen. Lisäksi hänen piirustuksensa Vitruviuksen mies on noussut ikoniseen asemaan.

Leonardo da Vincin vuonna 1490 piirtämä luonnos Vitruviuksen miehestä on täydellinen osoitus Leonardon intohimojen tieteen ja taiteen risteämisestä. Piirustuksessa on mieshahmo kahdessa päällekkäin piirretyssä asennossa hänen jalkansa ja kätensä levällään sekä neliön että ympyrän sisällä. Piirustus kuvaa Leonardon tutkimuksia ihmisen mittasuhteista sekä hän haluaan saada yhdistettyä ihminen luonnontieteisiin.

Leonardo da Vincillä

Pyhä ehtoollinen

Leonardo teki suuren osan työstään asuessaan vuosien 1482–1499 aikana Milanossa. Tuolla häneltä tilattiin kaksi hänen kuuluisimmista teoksistaan, Luolamadonna ja Pyhä ehtoollinen. Noin vuonna 1495 silloinen Milanon herttua Ludovico Sforza tilasi Leonardolta Pyhän ehtoollisen Milanon Santa Maria delle Grazie -kirkon ruokasalin seinälle. Leonardon mestariteos valmistui noin kolmessa vuodessa ja kuvaa dramaattisesti sitä hetkeä, kun Jeesus kertoo kahdelletoista opetuslapselleen ehtoollisella, että yksi heistä tulee pian pettämään hänet. Pöydän ympärillä olevien hahmojen kasvojen ilmeet ja kehonkielen ilmaisut herättävät mestarillisen teoksen henkiin. Maalauksen koko on 460 cm x 880 cm. Leonardo toteutti Pyhän ehtoollisen tempera- ja öljymaalauksena kuivuneelle seinälle sen sijaan, että hän olisi maalannut sen freskona märälle sementille. Tämän vuoksi teos alkoi rapautua jo 20 vuoden kuluttua valmistumisestaan. Vuonna 1556 teoksen tilalle puhkaistiin oviaukko, kun maalauksen nähtiin jo menneen pilalle. Ensimmäiset restaurointiyritykset pilasivat työtä vielä lisää, mutta se on saatu restauroitua myöhemmillä tekniikoilla. Uusimmat restauroinnit ovat myös paljastaneet maalauksesta uusia yksityiskohtia aiempien päälle tehtyjen maalauskerrosten alta.

Mona Lisa

Leonardo da Vinci aloitti lopulta kuuluisimmaksi muodostuneen, sekä luultavasti myös maailman kaikkien aikojen kuuluisimman, maalauksensa Mona Lisan maalaamisen vuonna 1503. Yksityistilauksesta tehty maalaus esittää puolimuotokuvaa salaperäisesti hymyilevästä naisesta. Maalauksessaan Leonardo käyttää kehittämäänsä sfumatoa, eli valohämytystekniikkaa, jolla pyritään luomaan utuinen ja kolmiulotteinen kuva pehmentämällä ja sulauttamalla värisävyjä toisiinsa, useilla ohuilla maalikerroksilla. Tutkijoiden mukaan Mona Lisan silmien ja suun ympäristössä on 30–40 värikerrosta.

Mona Lisa

Eräs Mona Lisan kiehtovimmista ominaisuuksista on mysteeri sitä esittävän henkilön ympärillä. Teoksen on arvailtu esittävän muun muassa Da Vincin omaa äitiä, tuntematonta hovinaista tai Napolin prinsessa Isabellaa. On jopa arveltu, että maalauksen kohde ei olisikaan nainen, vaan Leonardo da Vincin pitkäaikainen kumppani Salai pukeutuneena naisten vaatteisiin. Varhaisten muistiinpanojen mukaan Mona Lisa olisi kuitenkin maalaus varakkaan firenzeläisen silkkikauppiaan vaimosta Lisa del Giocondosta, joka olisi saattanut olla raskaana teoksen maalaamisen aikaan.

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